ASDF

Another System Definition Facility

ASDF 3

ASDF 3 is the current successor to Daniel Barlow's ASDF. It was rewritten for improved portability, robustness, usability, extensibility, configurability, internal consistency, and the ability to create standalone executables. It was pre-released as 2.27 on February 1st 2013, released as 3.0.0 on May 15th 2013, with further stable releases since.

What it is

ASDF stands for Another System Definition Facility, in the continuity of the Lisp DEFSYSTEM of yore.

ASDF 3 contains two parts: asdf/defsystem and uiop.

asdf/defsystem

is a tool to describe how Lisp source code is organized in systems, and how to build a system in term of actions that depend on previous actions.

Typical actions consist in compiling a Lisp source file (if not up to date) and loading the resulting compilation output (if not both loaded and up to date). And you must typically compile and load files that define packages, macros, variables, before you may compile and load other files that use them.

It is roughly what Common Lisp hackers use to build and load software where C hackers might use GNU Make to build software and ld.so to load it.

asdf/defsystem is the part that people usually refer to as ASDF, with uiop being only a supporting library, that happens to be distributed at the same time, by necessity.

uiop

also known as asdf/driver, the Utilities for Implementation- and OS- Portability, is a Common Lisp portability library and runtime support system that helps you write Common Lisp software in a portable way.

In addition to many general-purpose Lisp utilities, it notably provides portable abstractions to gloss over implementation quirks, support hot-upgrade of code, manipulate pathnames, create programs, use command-line arguments, access the environment, use the filesystem, call other programs and parse their output, compile Lisp code, muffle conditions, or configure Lisp software. See its README.

uiop is distributed as part of the ASDF, its source code is transcluded in the single-file asdf.lisp being distributed and the precompiled fasls provided by Lisp implementations. ASDF relies heavily on it for its portability layer and runtime support, particularly so as to handle pathnames and filesystem access. uiop is useful on its own and can also be compiled and distributed separately.

What it is not

ASDF will not download missing software components for you. For that, you want Quicklisp, that builds upon ASDF, and is great for pulling and installing tarballs of packages you may depend upon; we also recommend clbuild, that now builds upon Quicklisp, as a great tool for pulling from version control packages you need to modify or want to contribute to. We recommend you should not use asdf-install anymore, as it is an older similar piece of software that is both unmaintained and obsolete.

ASDF is also not a tool to build or run Common Lisp software from the Unix command-line. For that, you want cl-launch, or perhaps buildapp.

If you're unsatisfied with ASDF, beside helping with our TODO list, you might be interested in other build systems for Common-Lisp:

There are probably more. However, none of these systems seems to ever have had the traction of ASDF, probably because none was technically superior enough (when at all) to compensate for the first mover advantage.

Supported Implementations

ASDF 3 now supports all CL implementations that seem to have any current user base, and then some.

Most implementations provide ASDF as a module, and you can simply (require "asdf"). (All of them but CLISP also accept :asdf, "ASDF" or 'asdf as an argument.) Most of these implementations provide ASDF 3, a few only provide ASDF 2. Some implementations don't provide ASDF yet, but have announced they will in their next release. As for remaining implementations, they are obsolete and/or mostly unmaintained; still ASDF 3 supports them if you load it manually, though there might never be a next release to provide it through require.

Provide ASDF 3 Provide ASDF 2 Will provide it Obsolete
Free abcl ccl clisp cmucl ecl mkcl sbcl xcl gcl mcl
Proprietary allegro lispworks mocl scl cormanlisp genera

To deal with an implementation that doesn't yet provide ASDF 3, we provide a script that can install ASDF 3 where your implementation goes looking for it when you require it. Alternatively, if the implementation provides ASDF 2 or an older ASDF 3, you can download, install and configure a more recent ASDF 3, and use (asdf:load-system :asdf) to upgrade it. Beware: when upgrading from ASDF 2, you should always do it immediately after the require, and before you use ASDF for anything else (ASDF 3 does that automatically).

If there is an old or new implementation that we are missing, it shouldn't be hard to adapt ASDF to support it. Ask us!

Examples

Download any of the many packages available through Quicklisp to see as many examples.

Documentation

You can read our manual:

You can read draft of the much improved and expanded new manual. Please send comments to ASDF-devel, or file them as tickets on launchpad!

Regarding the internal design of ASDF in general, and the work we did on ASDF 3, see the extended version (25 pages) of our paper ASDF3, or Why Lisp is Now an Acceptable Scripting Language (PDF, git). the shorter version (8 pages) submitted to ELS 2014, focuses on ASDF 3 and misses historical and technical information (PDF, HTML). Regarding ASDF 3, see also the slides of the ASDF3 tutorial presented at ELS 2013, and for an introduction to the source code, this video: ASDF 3.1 walkthrough. For more details about our work on ASDF 2, see the last draft version of our paper for ILC 2010, Evolving ASDF: More Cooperation, Less Coordination (git).

Finally, while the manual covers all the basics, some advanced or new features remain underdocumented. Please contact our mailing-list (see below) for any issue that isn't well-documented enough.

Until we write more documentation on the further innovations of ASDF 3, the documentation strings, the source code, the changelog and the git log are unfortunately your best chances for discovering the available functionality.

Getting it

Though they may lag behind the version here, ASDF comes bundled with most Lisps. To get the greatest and latest, you can:

Extensions

Known extensions to ASDF include:

Former extensions, now superseded, include:

Contributing

Join our mailing list, check the code out from git, send questions, ideas and patches!

Reporting Bugs

To report bugs, you can use our launchpad project. If you're unsure about the bug or want to discuss how to fix it, you can send email to the project mailing-list below.

Mailing Lists

To subscribe to these mailing lists, send an email to, e.g., asdf-devel+subscribe at common-lisp.net. For more information about mailing lists at common-lisp.net, see here.

Contributing

Join our mailing list, check the code out from git, send questions, ideas and patches!

What is happening

October 2013
Version 3.0.3 of ASDF 3 has been released. It contains many bug fixes, including notably better Windows support.
Since July 2013
François-René Rideau has resigned as maintainer after releasing ASDF 3.0.1, but remains an active developer. Robert P. Goldman is interim maintainer until someone more gifted, charming, dedicated, and better-looking can be secured to fill the role.
November 2012 to June 2013
François-René Rideau completely rewrites ASDF and publishes ASDF 3, pre-released as 2.27 in February 2013, and released as 3.0.1 in May 2013. It now includes both the traditional asdf/defsystem and a formalized portability library uiop (née asdf/driver). asdf/defsystem is a backward-compatible reimplementation of ASDF with correct timestamp propagation based on a consistent dependency model, and featuring support for bundle output, deferred warnings check, and more. uiop provides many abstractions to write portable Common Lisp programs. Last version: 3.0.1.
December 2009 to October 2012
François-René Rideau is de facto maintainer, with notable contributions from Robert P. Goldman, but also Juanjo Garcia-Ripoll and James Anderson. ASDF 2.000 is released in May 2010 with many clean-ups, better configurability, some new features, and updated documentation. The ASDF 2 series culminates with ASDF 2.26 in October 2012, which in addition to many bug fixes and small features includes support for file encodings, around-compile and compile-check hooks. Last version: 2.26.
May 2006 to November 2009
Gary King is de facto maintainer, with notable contributions from Robert P. Goldman, Nikodemus Siivola, Christophe Rhodes, Daniel Herring. Many small features and bug fixes, making the project more maintainable, moving to using git and common-lisp.net. Last version: 1.369.
May 2004 to April 2006
Christophe Rhodes is de facto maintainer, with notable contributions from Nikodemus Siivola, Peter Van Eynde, Edi Weitz, Kevin Rosenberg. The system made more robust, a few more features. Last version: 1.97.
August 2001 to May 2004
Created then developed by Daniel Barlow, with notable contributions from Christophe Rhodes, Kevin Rosenberg, Edi Weitz, Rahul Jain. Last version: 1.85.